Chris Bowen will take on Greg Hunt following his appointment as shadow health minister.
Mr Bowen, who served as shadow treasurer for the past six years and shadow minister for small business since 2018, will succeed Catherine King in the all-important portfolio.
Ms King was appointed shadow minister for infrastructure, transport and regional development, having also served as shadow health minister for six years.
Brendan O'Connor was appointed to the industry portfolio while Madeleine King will take on trade.
"Medicare is one of Labor’s greatest achievements. Protecting and nurturing Medicare is an important part of Labor’s governing mission. Delighted to have been appointed Shadow Minister for Health and looking forward to building on Labor’s tremendous record in health," said Mr Bowen in a statement.
Mr Bowen has been the federal member for the McMahon since 2004. The electorate is based in western Sydney and Mr Bowen retained the seat at the recent election despite a swing of almost six per cent to the Liberal candidate.
He served in a range of portfolios in the former Labor government, including assistant treasurer, immigration minister and minister for human services.